If far and wide enough infographic published, some experts argue, can save lives. The communicative value in the data to improve public health outcomes for viewing has long been established that dates back more than two centuries. They were intended as the first examples of discussion and debate among an elite social inform, but also tried to address real-world problems. From 1820-1830 the enthusiasm for the Western world statistics began to drive the reform poses for a period of relevant statistics. It ‘been run by people who have tried to interfere with what they saw as the political chaos and replace it with a new empirical system of non-political, observed fact. This new approach could be seen as a field of action, as a science, empirical weight applied to the new, the dominant intellectual spirit of political economy. After the establishment of the General Register Office (GRO) in 1837, it has been applied to the first wave of enthusiasm the statistical poverty and the environment of the poor lived; progressives who have committed such investigations have done within the legal framework of the reform law early 1830. (At the same time, often involving socially or professionally) separate from the governments of that time, a network of liberal reformers individuals come from business and professional classes distributed in statistical activities. each bearing was established within a few years in the capital and major cities of the industrial north, a number of companies, the imprint of the interests and concerns that made them. Health problems tended to societal concerns in part to dominate because health represented “an important part of the working class of well-being,” as the historian John Eyler doctor writes in his book “The Victorian social medicine”; but also because the data were relatively easy to produce. The emergence of these new companies in 1840 coincided with a broader publishing revolution; new communications and printing technology made possible both improved quality print publications more accessible and pave the way for the first views of public health. William Farr, is considered one of the founders of medical statistics and epidemiology, his medical career in journalism began rather than in practice, which in turn helped him to cement his reputation as an expert on demographic statistics. In 1839 he joined the Farr Statistical Society of London, a central element remains until his retirement. Regular combined for one of the oldest medical journals in the world, The Lancet, Farr sympathy for the liberal reforms with the behavior of professional statisticians. Like many of his colleagues in the statistical society of the time he was fighting an ideological trend of self-help for balance, with statistical results that the intervention by the State relieved. The GRO policy under Farr were anti-contagionist (in terms of medical perspective) and environmentalists (in terms of reform), he writes the late sociologist and historian of science Alain Desrosières. Farr graphics used in its publications for GRO, some of which, though certainly not innovative, have had an amazing effect. is, for example, in its summary report, the “Fifth Annual Report” (1843), released three line graphs for the mortality rates Juxtapose between Surrey, Liverpool, and an average metropolis used to show large differences in mortality laws in distributions. The average of these three graphs, that Liverpool has shown that half of all children died before the age of six years – previously held beliefs of the difficult moment that the rapid growth of the city was proof that his was healthy indoor climate. Another medical journalist who has experimented with data visualization, John Snow, started his business in London in the mid-1830s, some papers published in The Lancet and The London Medical Gazette. “The mode of transmission of Cholera” (1849) was published the same year in which the article snow on cholera in the Medical Journal and Times published. He suggested that the disease has been made in providing water contaminated with diarrhea and passed over human contact and by contact with contaminated material. to capture the local incidence of the disease and to compare with previous outbreaks – used data in its statistical reports GRO cards – “Weekly return of birth and death in London.” The centrality of snow discoveries in medical cartography, geography and epidemiology are now established in the literature – but a question remains why did not convince his contemporaries of the logical conclusion of his findings. Tom Koch, a clinical ethicist and author of “cartography of the disease,” suggests the snow does not make a mandatory general theory to support his local knowledge – he has refused to challenge the Zymotic theory (the belief that the infection was exclusively a consequence of the air vapors), promoted a theory in the writings, diagrams and maps, among others, William Farr. Influenced by the family, Florence Nightingale, a statistical pioneer, social reformer and pioneer of nursing, the day he met many of the leading medical figures, including Farr. Nightingale Farr has developed a beneficial relationship for both parties, who put on common objectives, at least in the beginning, he and the available statistical consulting, while access to their influential political contacts. When the Crimean War broke out in September 1854, William Howard Russell Times has posted a series of damning reports from the front, it caused great excitement among readers and the general public, increase awareness of the lack of military readiness and mismanagement medical wounded. Minister of War Herbert Sidney was forced to act, Nightingale ask to visit military hospitals in the Crimea, at government expense. Just as the presence in Scutari Barracks Hospital Nightingale, Istanbul, was had fallen out of the press, as well as his reputation grew as a result of favorable coverage in the times that popularized their person as “The Lady with the Lamp”, which It spent much of their time on talent convalescent soldiers. Although the recording, which is mainly an administrative role, Nightingale paid regular visits to the stations, a strong affection among the soldiers what to develop their symbolic connection with maternal care. After the war, in September 1856 Nightingale was invited to Balmoral to discuss their experiences and thoughts with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, a few days later leads to an interview with Lord Panmure, who agreed to investigate defects in medical infrastructure for the establishment of a military commission. “Notes on matters affecting the health, efficiency and the British Army hospital administration” of the Nightingale (1858), was scathing in its conclusions about the consequences of harmful health conditions in the hospitals of the Crimea; Deaths (mostly) more numerous preventable disease deaths on the battlefield (or accrued on the battlefield wounds) by a factor of seven to one. For Nightingale, the disease was a quality of human nature, something that can not be isolated in a particular context and treated. Nightingale had to quote a natural predisposition for infographic design, or “the statistical aesthetic,” John Eyler, they used to emphasize their work. It ‘been developed in terms of the persuasiveness of the data visualization capabilities as written rhetorical techniques in their use. He thought his graphic forms had the power both to speak in public and to the Queen; However, these modules are not discursively addressed to a wide extent, public reading – in fact, just released some were, if anything, buried a lot of time in the annexes of several hundred pages of government reports. Nightingale developed the political dynamics In March of 1858 to maintain the Commission’s conclusions a sophisticated media campaign, and to ensure his recommendations were made. They identified a number of editors, providing their name could be brought to the Commissioner (and personal friend) Sydney Herbert statement to get their message across. They concentrated their efforts on the “heavies” – the neighborhood and opinions, whose director gained a higher degree of respect in the good company of any newspaper editor in the day could realistically hope for. Nightingale compiled for each of these contacts “press kit” individualized, including “states the facts, even the titles for all the items”; although all have been published anonymously. Both Nightingale and Farr were involved in their statistical studies to discover the natural laws of human behavior. If the man could discover these laws, they reasoned, it could adjust it according to the company, in an act of gradual improvement. This deterministic principle (although not fatalistic) must Adolphe Quetelet. In 1831 Quetelet published map of crimes against property in France, which was used visually, to support his argument that, regardless of human action, the laws of nature of the crime and the increase in terms of increased social inequalities obeyed. The Quetelet’s approach was empirical, experimental and testified about the statistical study. its sequel “Sur l’homme et le développement de ses Facultés, social ou Essai de physique” (1835), applying the statistical method to work with social problems, exerted a particularly strong influence on the Nightingale. In this book you can the intellectual culmination of a mind perceives them clearly in tune with the thinking regarding the systematic collection of data. Nightingale was aware of the rhetorical power of infographics. It took more or less the same aesthetic pleasure in statistics as Priestley took chronograph; has represented for them a religious duty, “” moral imperative, writes Eyler, the plan divinely ordained of God. That said, the Nightingale’s contribution to public health has been extremely pragmatic. She was a clever writer and political actor, but his legacy as a disseminator of information graphics is not so clearly defined. These texts contain the day of the rankings were not generally available in the public library catalogs. Nightingales pole region diagrams (or exploded pie charts) I have a debt to William Playfair innovations, but also no doubt to his longtime collaborator William Farr, who experimented with pie charts in his previous publications. Lee Brasseur, an expert in the field of visualization has established a convincing critique of visual rhetoric of three Nightingales diagrams as they appear in their 16-page booklet, “A contribution to the health history of the British Army” (1859 (), a publication that charts and Farr attributes for graphics). These three lithographs, published in a short, very impactful booklet contains (after Brasseur) consistent (and convincing) sequential progression in visual Rhetorik. The first, entitled “Army mortality tables in the East”, sets the monthly mortality in the army during the first and second year of the war; the first (larger) diagram Rates are relative mortality in the first year draws the viewer’s eye to the right before a broken line draws attention to the smallest pattern on the left side, the second year rate of mortality. The viewer is invited to these mortality rates against a concentric circle in each diagram next to each other, which brings the average rate of death from Manchester to express one of the deadliest cities in England at the time. invites the viewer to reflect on what could be the cause of these discrepancies, the second graph shows “diagram of the army-cause mortality in the East”, corresponding to poly area, that the majority of deaths are due to preventable diseases. first mentioned point of having the problem, and then on the other hand, explores the reasons for the anomaly Nightingale puts then into a third table, the monthly mortality rates, the result of improvements that had been made in Scutari after the March 1855 Kulali military hospitals . Together, these three diagrams a devastating critique of visual Army criminal liability in many unnecessary deaths on the Crimean front. Nightingales games Polar diagram area, with the metaphorical implications of William Playfair pie charts in a very effective way. These diagrams require the apparent unity, continuity and consistency of phenomena which they express. The scaling each section implies a sense of discontinuity, but the same spirit of empiricism cartographic, speaking through the 19th century broader statistical maps. These forms encourage the viewer with a sense of power, authority and purpose, a fire control target on the problem of the social ills of the day. But they also have the discontinuity; Things can clearly just did not go as they are – the change is the implicit change is needed. This publication is a multimodal means to combine advertising in a highly charged work convincing interpretive and explanatory discursive elements. Nightingale approach speaks more art methods. He tried Quetelet basic statistics to a non-professional, but still the elite audience to communicate. However, although enthusiast statistic that may have been the Victorian Prints, had, it seems, little to say about nightingales innovations. Although an estimated audience read within (and presents), could the views of Nightingale and Farr hardly be said, a significant, direct public action have had. It would not be until the rise of popular almanacs in the late 20th century, and in turn the modern day popular British press that the public would begin to encounter infographic. Dick Murray is a multimedia journalism lecturer at Newcastle University and the author of “The infographic: A History of the graphical data in messages and communications” from which this article is adapted Picture of Wellcome Collection copyright.